||This page is part of the Thai translation project.|
|This article makes use of diagrams in the MCRedstoneSim format for compactness and clarity.
Some of the designs are more than two blocks high which is represented here by the layers being frames in an animated gif or labeled side by side. A full legend is on the Redstone schematics page.
For the repeater, see Redstone Repeater.
It's also possible to use pistons in redstone circuits.
 Basic Mechanics
(needs editing [start]) Redstone wiring will store energy and then sent to the channel 15, the darker the color (needs editing [end]). To create a redstone wire, select redstone dust and right-click on top of the ground/on top of a block to place one "piece" down and you can destroy it by left-clicking like any other block though note that it gets destroyed instantly. To create the wire just keep putting down redstone dust and it will automatically form a line if they are next to each other.
 Powering Blocks
Every single block in Minecraft is either powered or not powered. Think of a "powered block" as a cube of dirt or an empty space (though no truly empty Air block can be powered) that is invisibly electrified but safe to touch.
Power may be transmitted from a powered block to one or more of the six directly adjacent blocks. To transmit power, a block must be either:
- an active power source (a redstone torch),
- the block to which a switch is attached (that is, the block under a pressure plate or the block on which a lever or button is mounted),
- the block a switch is in,
- the block above a redstone torch, or
- an active power conductor (redstone wire that is immediately adjacent to a powered block).
One must be careful to note that a redstone torch placed on the side of a block of dirt is actually part of the block next to the dirt, not part of the dirt block itself. Similarly, redstone wire that is placed on top of a block of dirt is part of the block above the dirt. However, if the block on which the redstone wire is placed becomes powered in any way, so does the redstone wire.
Each actively powered block transmits power in several directions, depending on the contents of the block:
- A redstone torch powers itself and the block directly above it, unless that block is air. Because of how redstone wires work, this also activates adjacent power conduits (redstone wire).
- A pressure plate activates the block it is physically located in, as well as the block below (on which it is placed).
- A lever powers the block in which it is located and the block on which it is placed.
- A button powers the block in which it is located and the block on which it is placed.
- Redstone wire Powers itself the block below it, the Block it is pointing to and the Block below that.
 Redstone Wire and signal strength
Whether a block is weakly or normally (strongly) powered affects how redstone wires interact with it. Blocks are strongly powered by redstone power sources; torches (from below), repeaters, levers, pressure plates etc. If a block is powered only by redstone wire then it is weakly powered. Redstone wire which is adjacent to, on top of, or below a block that is strongly powered will become active. It will not become active if that block is weakly powered.
 Powering Devices
A device, such as a door, a minecart track, or a block of TNT, is activated when an adjacent block is powered. As a simple example, placing a redstone torch next to a door will change the state of the door to on. Similarly, standing on a pressure plate immediately adjacent to a door will activate the door. However, standing on a pressure plate two blocks away from a door will not activate the door, because the power does not reach the block next to or under the door.
To power devices at a distance, the power must be conducted from the active power source to the device; redstone wire is used for this purpose. As noted above, the redstone wire is part of the block it is physically located in, not the block to which it is attached. Redstone wire, or dust, has two states: on (lit) and off (unlit).
The simplest way to activate redstone wire is to put a redstone torch or switch adjacent to the wire. It also works to have a torch or switch directly above the wire, attached to a wall.
A redstone torch is itself a powered device; its default state is "on", but it will be turned off if it receives power from the block to which it is attached. This feature, along with the use of wire to transmit power in particular directions over distance, is the basis for the advanced redstone devices and circuitry below.
Care must be taken to follow the power rules precisely, or one might see unexpected results. For example, consider a pressure plate. Activating the plate will power the block underneath the plate as well as the block on which the plate resides. Nevertheless, redstone wire beneath this block will still be powered, because it is adjacent to the powered block above it. However, activating the plate will not turn off a redstone torch placed beneath the powered block -- in fact, placing a redstone torch under the block under the pressure plate will power it continuously, effectively disabling the plate.
 Specific Powered Devices
Certain devices act in specific ways, for example:
- If a block is powered, a redstone torch attached to it will be deactivated.
- If a block is powered, a door on top of it or adjacent to it will toggle its state from open to closed or vice versa. (The actual state will depend, because doors were implemented unintuitively.)
- If a block is powered, and it is a note block/dispenser, it will play/shoot once.
- If a block is powered, and rails are above it, they will toggle shape. (You can still have the wiring power the rail directly.)
 Common Errors To Avoid
The following are common errors to avoid:
- Trying to power a block by putting activated redstone wire underneath it. Redstone wire powers blocks only horizontally at its ends. To power a block from below, use a redstone torch.
- Trying to transmit power through a block that doesn't have any redstone wire on it. While a generic block (dirt, sand, gravel, etc) adjacent to the end of a wire can receive power, it will not transmit that power to wire on the other side, because it is not one of the blocks that can transmit power. If you have a block that you cannot move, send wire around it (including on top of it).
- If a block has redstone wire on top and a redstone torch on the side, then the block above the torch must be either air, glass or a half-tile. If you place any solid block above the torch, it will create a feedback loop and the torch will burn out.
 Logic Gates
A logic gate can be thought of as a simple device that will return a number of outputs, determined by the pattern of inputs and rules that the logic gate follows. For example, if both inputs in an AND gate are in the 'true'/'on'/'powered' state, then the gate will return 'true'/'on'/'powered'. Much more in-depth information and a better explanation of this expansive topic is available on Wikipedia.
Below is a list of some of the basic gates with example images and MC Redstone Sim diagrams. There are many different ways to construct them other than those shown below, so use them as guidelines for creating one to fit your needs. Most circuits have multiple valid implementations, with various advantages and disadvantages between designs such as size, complexity, performance, maintenance overhead.
Keep in mind that :
- tick is the delay between the events "redstone torch receives power" and "redstone torch turns off or on". (depending on its initial state);
- repeaters can be set to 1,2,3,4 tick(s). One tick = 0.1 seconds.
 Piston Circuits
 Circuit Symbols
Each symbol represents one to three blocks (most often one or two), viewed from above. All descriptions are with reference to a "ground level", the level where you are building your gate on.
From left to right:
- Air: air over air, i.e. two empty blocks, one above the other above ground level
- Block: air over a block (of any sort)
- Two Blocks: block over block, i.e. two solid blocks above ground level
- Wire: wire (with a block assumed below the wire, below ground level)
- Redstone Torch: air over redstone torch (all torches are redstone torches in circuits)
- Wire over Block
- Torch over Block
- Block over Wire (ie: layer 1 is wire; layer 2 is a block)
- Block over Torch
- Torch over Wire (ie: layer 1 is wire; layer 2 is a torch, attached to adjacent layer 2 block not shown)
- Bridge: wire on top of block, over wire (with the usual empty air block above the top wire, see Redstone schematics)
- Lever (aka Switch): air over switch
- Stone Button: air over button (button lasts 10 ticks)
- Pressure Plate: air over plate
- Door: 2-high
- Repeater: air over a repeater on any setting, also represents repeater on ground in vertical diagrams
- Repeater over Block
- Block over Repeater
- Dispenser on top of a block
- A block on top of a dispenser
 NOT Gate (¬)
A device that inverts the input, as such it is also called an "Inverter" Gate.
 OR Gate (∨)
A device where the output is on when at least one of the inputs are on.
A simpler version of the OR gate is design A: merely a wire connecting all inputs and outputs. However, this causes the inputs to become "compromised", so that they can only be used in this OR gate. If you need to use the inputs elsewhere, version B is necessary.
Version C (not yet pictured) consist of a block with a repeater next to it as the output. With this design, it is possible to add a supplementary input via a wire from the top for a total of 5 inputs. This design is also faster because it uses a repeater instead of a torch.
Note that design B is a simple inversion of a NOR gate.
 NOR Gate (⊽)
A device where the output is off when at least one of the inputs are on. All logic gates can be made from either this gate or the NAND gate. In Minecraft, this is the basic logic gate, implemented by a torch. A torch can have as many as 4 mutually isolated inputs (design B), but 3 can fit comfortably (design A), and all are optional. A torch with 1 input is the NOT gate, and with no inputs is the TRUE gate (i.e. a power source). If more inputs than 4 are necessary, one must resort to the non-isolated OR gate with a NOT at the end (at expense of isolation), or multiple NOR gates, according to the formula A ⊽ B ⊽ C = A ⊽ ¬(B ∨ C) (at the expense of speed, due to the nested gates).
 AND Gate (∧)
A device where the output is on when both inputs are on. This behaves in a manner equivalent to a Tri-state buffer, where input B acts like a switch, so that if it is off, input A is disconnected from the rest of the circuit. The discrepancy from real-life tri-state buffers lies in the fact that one cannot drive a low current in Minecraft. (See the Wikipedia article for details.)
An example application would be building a locking mechanism for a door, requiring both the activating button and the lock (typically a lever) to be on.
 NAND Gate (⊼)
A device where the output is off when both inputs are on.
 XOR Gate (⊻)
XOR is a device which activates when the inputs are not the same, when only one is on. XOR is pronounced "exor," and is a shortening of "exclusive or," because it's OR excluding when both inputs are true. Adding a NOT gate to the end will produce an XNOR gate, which activates when the inputs are equal to each other. A useful attribute is that an XOR or XNOR gate will always change its output when one of its inputs changes, allowing for 2 switches to be combined to open or close a door, or activate another device.
Design D is not useful unless you want the levers to be fixed to the circuit. Design F is the most widely used.
 XNOR Gate (≡)
In logic, this is more commonly referred to as "if and only if" or "iff" for short. It is a device which activates only when the inputs are equal to each other. In other words when either input changes, the output changes. This is achieved by inverting the output or one input of an XOR. An application of this in Minecraft would be to wire up two levers to the same door.
 IMPLIES Gate (→)
A device which represents material implication. Returns false only if the implication A → B is false. That is, if the conditional A is true, but the consequent B is false. It is often read "if A then B." It is the logical equivalent of "B or NOT A".
|Inputs isolated?||Only A||Only A||Yes||Only A|
 Latches and Flip-Flops
Latches and Flip-Flops are effectively 1-bit memory cells. They allow circuits to store data and deliver it at a later time, rather than acting only on the inputs at the time they are given. Functions using these components can be built to give different outputs in subsequent executions even if the inputs don't change, and so circuits using them are referred to as "sequential logic". They allow for the design of counters, long-term clocks, and complex memory systems, which cannot be created with combinational logic gates alone.
The common feature at the heart of every redstone latch or flip-flop is the RS NOR latch, built from two NOR gates whose inputs and outputs are connected in a loop (see below). The basic NOR latch's symmetry makes the choice of which state represents 'set' an arbitrary decision, at least until additional logic is attached to form more complex devices. Latches usually have two inputs, a 'set' input and a 'reset' input, used to control the value that is stored, while flip-flops tend to wrap additional logic around a latch to make it behave in different ways.
 RS NOR latch
A device where Q will stay on forever after input is received by S. Q can be turned off again by a signal received by R.
This is probably the smallest memory device that is possible to make in Minecraft. Note that Q means the opposite of Q, e.g. when Q is on, Q is off and vice-versa. This means that in certain cases, you can get rid of a NOT gate by simply picking the Q output instead of putting a NOT gate after the Q output.
A very basic example of use would be making an alarm system in which a warning light would stay turned on after a pressure plate is pressed, until you hit a reset button.
In the truth table, S=1, R=1 is often referred to as forbidden, because it breaks the inverse relationship between Q and Q. Also, some designs where the input is not isolated from the output, such as B and D, will actually result in Q and Q both apparently being 1 in this case. As soon as either S or R becomes 0, the output will be correct again. However, if S and R both become 0 on exactly the same tick, the resulting state could be either Q or Q, depending on quirks of game mechanics. In practice, this input state should be avoided because its output is undefined. In design E, S=1 and R=1 results in both Q=0 and Q=0.
Along with traditional redstone designs, a RS-NOR latch can also be achieved with a Sticky Piston. If a repeater is connected into itself, and given power, the power is maintained until the circuit is disconnected. If a Sticky Piston is positioned with a block to cut off power, it can be connected to the R input and reset it. This method is much simpler than traditional redstone designs, but takes up somewhat more space.
|0||0||Keep state||Keep state|
 RS NAND latch
Since NOR and NAND are the universal logic gates, a design for an RS NAND latch is just an RS NOR with inverters applied to the inputs and outputs. The RS NAND is logically equivalent to the RS NOR as the same inputs for R and S give the same outputs. This circuit is impractical in Minecraft because a single redstone torch acts as a NOR gate.
When S and R are both off, Q and Q are on. When S is on, but R is off, Q will be on. When R is on, but S is off, Q will be on. When S and R are both on, it does not change Q and Q. They will be the same as they were before S and R were both turned on.
|1||1||Keep state||Keep state|
 D Flip-Flop
A D flip-flop, or "data" flip-flop, sets the output to D only on certain conditions. The basic level-triggering D flip-flop (design A), also known as a gated D latch, sets the output to D as long as the clock is set to OFF, and ignores changes in D as long as the clock is ON. Watch this video for a tutorial on creating this basic D Flip-Flop.
Design B includes an edge-trigger, and will set the output to D only at the moment the clock goes from OFF to ON.
In these designs, the output is not isolated; this allows for asynchronous R and S inputs (which override the clock and force a certain output state). To get an isolated output, instead of using Q simply connect an inverter to Q.
Design C is a one block wide version of A, except for using a non-inverted clock. It sets the output to D as long as the clock is ON (turning the torch off). This design can be repeated in parallel every other block, giving it a much smaller footprint, equal to the minimum spacing of parallel data lines (when not using a "cable"). A clock signal can be distributed to all of them with a wire running perpendicularly under the data lines, allowing multiple flip-flops to share a single edge-trigger if desired. The output Q is most easily accessed in the reverse direction, toward the source of input. Q can be inverted or repeated to isolate the latch's Set line (the unisolated Q and Q wires can do double duty as R and S inputs, as in design A).
Design E provides a more compact version of A, while still affording the same ceiling requirement. The design to the right in the image however requires 1 more block ceiling allowance, but allows the edge trigger to act on a high input. This additional ceiling requirement can be circumvented by simply moving the vertical NOT gate, to a lateral position 2 blocks downward. There is also the option of simply providing a NOT gate on the clock for your data bank, thus preventing the requirement of a gate for each flip flop.
Design F holds its state while the clock is high, and switches to D when the clock falls low. Note the presence of blocks above the top wire to cut connections. These are indicated by yellow hashing on the image. The repeater serves to synchronise the signals that switch out the loop and switch in D. It must be set to 1 to match the effect of the torch.
|Input isolated?||Yes||Yes||C Only||Yes||Yes||No|
 JK Flip-Flop
A JK flip-flop is another memory element which, like the D flip-flop, will only change its output state only when the clock signal C changes from 0 to 1 xor 1 to 0 (edge-triggered, design A and B), or while it holds a certain value (level-triggered, design C). When the flip-flop is triggered, if the input J = 1 and the input K = 0, the output Q = 1. When J = 0 and K = 1, the output Q = 0. If both J and K are 0, then the JK flip-flop maintains its previous state. If both are 1, the output will complement itself — i.e., if Q = 1 before the clock trigger, Q = 0 afterwards. The below table summarizes these states — note that Q(t) is the new state after the trigger, while Q(t-1) represents the state before the trigger.
The JK flip-flop's complement function (when J and K are 1) is only meaningful with edge-triggered JK flip-flops, as it's an instantaneous trigger condition. With level-triggered flip-flops (e.g. design C), maintaining the clock signal at 1 for too long causes a race condition on the output. Although this race condition is not fast enough to cause the torches to burn out, it makes the complement function unreliable for level-triggered flip-flops.
Pardon the non-standard art of the following circuit. I built this vertical JK Flip-Flop from the basis of design A. This circuit can be built together in series side-by-side by spacing the circuit one block apart and alternating the direction of the circuit (left-to-right, right-to-left, etc). By adding an AND gate combining K and Q at the end of this circuit and outputting the result into the inputs J and K of the next gate you can get a binary counter. For optimal space saving you can pass input K through the block it hits by replacing the redstone wire with a relay. Then you can just add additional redstone wire on the other side to bring the input of K over to Q. There is also enough space to begin a vertical AND gate to where the result is just to the right of output Q.
NOTE: Although not marked on the page, all relays should be set to their first notch EXCEPT ONE. Starting from input K move 8 blocks over and 2 up. That gate needs to have the longest delay at 4 notches. Also, all gates will finalize at the same time when synced to the same clock. A clock speed of 1.5 seconds (4 relays in a loop) has proven to be the most effective on a multiplayer server; although the relays can freeze when warping or leaving the area.
 T Flip-Flop
T Flip-Flops are also known as "toggles". Whenever T changes from 0 (off) to 1 (on), the output will toggle its state.
A useful way to use T Flip-Flops in Minecraft could for example be a button connected to the input. When you press the button the output toggles (a door opens or closes), and does not toggle back when the button pops out. (Designs C and D do not have an incorporated edge trigger and will toggle multiple times unless the input is passed through one first.)
It is also the core of all binary counters and clocks, as it functions as a "period doubler", turning two input pulses into one output pulse.
Design A has a large footprint, but is easy to build. It (and B, which is a slightly compacted version of A) is essentially a JK flip-flop with the inputs for J and K removed so that it relies on the edge trigger (right side of the diagram) to keep it in the stable state and only allow a single operation per input.
Design C has a smaller footprint and an easily accessible inverse output, but lacks an edge trigger. If the input is kept high, it will repeatedly toggle on and off, cycling quickly enough to burn out its torches. For example, if the button mentioned above is wired directly to its input, the device can toggle several times before the button shuts off. Even a 4-clock is too slow to reliably result in only one toggle. Adding an edge trigger by routing input through a separate pulse generator (design B' seems to work best) will prevent this problem, as will any other means of sending it a short (2-3 tick) pulse of power.
Designs D and E are much taller than the others, but only a single block wide, making them good for situations where floorspace is limited. D is level-triggered like design C, which can save space when distributing one input pulse to multiple flip-flops. Design E has an edge trigger.
The edge trigger makes the unit insensitive to the duration of the input pulse, thus it's easy to daisy-chain multiple units to create a binary counters or period-doublers for slow clocks.
These designs are based on the vertical gated D latch (design C) with the inverse output looped back to the input.
Design H uses timing; the repeaters exactly match the torches. The core of the design is a loop with two torches that acts as the memory cell. When the input is received, it temporarily substitutes in a loop with only one redstone torch - a not gate. This flips the input. The input must be held high and driven low with an edge. A suitable circuit is simply a torch and a repeater set on 4 in parallel. Without this, it will oscillate and burn out the torches, so lay the circuitry to hold the input high before putting in the loops. In addition to being small, the design is fast - the output flips almost as soon as the input goes low. It seems to be the smallest now if we do not include an edge detector on the input (the suggested edge detector is 3x4x1). Note that three blocks are needed above the redstone to stop cross-connections. In the diagram, these are shown with gray squares. You can put a fourth one in over the repeater for symmetry if you wish. These blocks do not add to the height of the unit, rather, they are at the same layer as the two upright torches.
Design I does not uses repeaters. The input is the Down block, the output can be the top left corner torch.
The Output blinks when toggled. Layout of the I T Flip-Flop.
Design J is the smallest design of T Flip-Flop on this page. It is a compact version of the H design and has an edge trigger. Depending on a combination of game mode (SMP or single player), orientation, and game version, the repeater delay may need to be adjusted to eliminate output flickers on state changes. In some situations, it will not work at all unless the repeater delays are adjusted. It has been reported that for proper operation in some cases, the repeaters have needed to be set to 2-1-4 or even 4-2-4.
A demo of this flip-flop working correctly can be downloaded at . It is a zipped world from a local installation of the minecraft server (v1.6.6).
With Beta 1.7.3 operation of the Sticky Pistons was changed. If a sticky piston is activated with a one-pulse, it will push or pull a block, but not push and pull it back. This makes it easy to build compact T flip-flops. Z1 is the design with the smallest footprint (sticky piston and movable block are on level 2 above the torches), Z2 is the lowest one - only one block height, Z3 is a vertical design. All include the necessary edge trigger. But keep in mind that it is currently not clear whether this behaviour of the sticky pistons is considered a bug or not. Watch this video for a tutorial on creating this basic T Flip-Flop (Design Z1).
NOTE: Some of the illustrated T Flip-Flops to the right don't include the typical Q outputs. If you want to use the Q then just add an inverter to Q.
NOTE: Using design E you may require a delay in the connection between the edge trigger and flip-flop in order to maintain a high input long enough to toggle the flip-flop
 Other Redstone Components
see Piston circuits
- See the Redstone Repeater article for full details.
As of Minecraft Beta version 1.3 you can craft a Redstone Repeater block from 3 stone, two redstone torches and one redstone dust. It can be used to compactly extend the running length of a wire beyond 15 blocks, or apply a configurable delay of between 1 to 4 ticks.
 Traditional Repeater/Diode
Using two Redstone torches in series can effectively extend your running wire length past the 15-block limitation. As of 1.0.2 (the July 6th 2010 update), there must be a strip of wire between the two Redstone torches. Repeaters make it possible to send long-distance signals around the map, but in the process, slow down the speed of transfer. To reduce delays, you can stretch out the repeater so that some areas of the wire are consistently in the opposite state, but as long as the number of Redstone torches, or, effectively, NOT Gates is even, the signal will be correct. In more advanced circuits, repeaters can be used as a semi-conductors to isolate inputs or outputs.
 Rail T Flip-Flop
The Rail T Flip-Flop is a T Flip-Flop which uses rails and redstone. It is slower than traditional redstone-only circuits, but takes up less space than a normal T Flip-Flop and allows for easy access to the input and output.
The wooden squares at the rail corners are pressure plates that will switch the conventional RS-NOR latch at the bottom.
 Two-Way Repeater
This circuit acts as a two-way repeater, essentially serving as an elongated strip of redstone. Unlike normal repeaters, which only work in one direction, this circuit allows a signal to be sent through it from either side. It does not have a traditional input or output, but rather two spots which serve as both input and output, depending on what is attached to them. Whenever either one of them is receiving power, the other one is also receiving power. Whenever one of them is off, both are off.
Also, this circuit even tells you the direction the signal is flowing. Of the two torches which appear unlit in the diagram, whenever the circuit is powered, one will be lit. It will be the only lit torch in the circuit, and it will face the direction the power is moving. Thus, if there is an input from A, the bottom-right torch will be lit.
In short, the primary purpose of this circuit is to simulate the function of redstone wire without restricting signal direction like a repeater, but it also happens to indicate which direction the signal is flowing.
This circuit can be made three blocks shorter using repeater blocks to prevent short-circuiting:
 The North/South Quirk
A specific arrangement of torches which would normally be expected to behave identically to a traditional 2-torch repeater, causing a 2-tick delay in signal transmission, instead causes only a 1-tick delay. (See figure 1.) When constructed with the torches facing east and west, this arrangement causes the expected 2-tick delay, but when facing north and south, the second (top) torch changes state at the same time as the first, after only a single tick.
The quirk can cause unexpected bugs in complicated circuit designs when not accounted for, but it does have several practical uses. For example, double doors require opposite power states, but inverting one signal delays that door's response by 1 tick. Prior to Beta 1.3 and the introduction of the Redstone Repeater, the only known way to perfectly synchronize them was with this 1-tick repeater. Another application is in creating a clock circuit (see below) with an even pulse width and period.
Finally, as a generalization of the double-door use, the North/South Quirk can be used to obtain two signals which are always inversely related without the additional 1-tick delay a NOT gate normally causes in the second signal. (See figure 2.) This can be especially useful in circuits where precise timing is important, such as signal processing that relies on the transition of an input from high to low and low to high (on to off and back), for example by sending each of the inverse signals through separate edge detectors (see pulse generators below) and then ORing their outputs.
 Delay Circuit
Sometimes it is desirable to induce a delay in your redstone circuitry. Delay circuits are the traditional way to achieve this goal a compact manner. However, in Beta 1.3 the single-block Redstone Repeater was introduced, which can be set to a 1, 2, 3 or 4 torch delay, effectively rendering these delay circuits obsolete. The historical circuits are shown here for completeness, and will still work should you choose to build one.
These two delay circuits utilize torches heavily in favor of compactness, but in doing so the builder must be aware of the North/South Quirk. For maximum signal delay, construct these designs so that the stacked torches face east and west. For a fine-tuned delay, adjust the design to rotate one of the alternating-torch stacks to face north and south, or add an additional stack in that orientation.
Design A gives a 4 tick delay, while design B gives a 3 tick delay.
 Clock generators
Clock generators are devices where the output is toggling on/off constantly. The simplest stable clock generator is the 5-clock (designs B and C). Using this method, 1-clocks and 3-clocks are possible to make but they will "burn out" because of their speed, which makes them unstable. Redundancy can be used to maintain a 1-clock, even as the torches burn out; the result is the so-called "Rapid Pulsar" (designs A and F). Slower clocks are made by making the chain of inverters longer (designs B' and C' show how such an extension process can be achieved).
Using a different method, a 4-clock can be made (design D). A 4-clock is the fastest clock which will not overload the torches.
A 4-clock with a regular on/off pulse width is also possible as seen in design E. This design uses five torches, but can be constructed so that it has a pulse width of 4 ticks by employing the North/South Quirk. It is important that the orientation of this design (or at least the portion containing the stacked torches) be along the north/south axis.
The customary name x-clock is derived from half of the period length, which is also usually the pulse width. For example, design B (a 5-clock) will produce the sequence
...11111000001111100000... on the output.
Designs F and G are examples of possible vertical configurations.
 Repeater Clocks
With the addition of Redstone Repeaters in the Beta 1.3 update, clock generators can be simplified to at most one block, one redstone torch and from one to any number of repeaters chained together.
Very rapid clocks with even pulsewidth can be designed out of only Redstone Repeaters. By increasing the delay on each repeater or by increasing the number of repeaters in the loop, the clock can be slowed. These clocks act as variable clocks, but have higher maximum speeds, but these can't be used as it soon burns out the torch, you have to set the repeater on its third setting to stop it burning out.
 Piston Clocks
After their addition in Beta 1.7, Pistons can be used to create new types of clocks with a modifiable pulse delay without the use of pulse generators. This allows other pistons to be clocked in a fashion that only leaves the arm extended for the time required to push an adjacent block, which in turn facilitates the creation of more complex and faster piston contraptions.
 Minecart Clocks
Minecart clocks are simple, easy to build and modify, but are somewhat unreliable and require the use of gold in their construction. Minecart clocks are made by creating a small circular track of minecart rails with one or more minecart booster and detector rail, and running an empty minecart through the loop. The cart is propelled endlessly by the boosters and generates a redstone signal as it passes over the detector rail. Minecart Clocks are, unlike piston clocks, completely silent, and can be extended or shortened easily by adding and removing track to adjust the delay between signals. Perhaps the biggest disadvantage to using a minecart clock is the fact that it is easily disrupted by the player or mobs, or the fact that it requires more space to to be constructed in. Finally, the necessity of gold in the construction of the booster rails may be a limiting factor to players without access to it.
 Variable Piston Clocks
A variable piston clock is a more streamlined piston clock, requiring only one piston and a varying number of redstone repeaters. These clocks are also toggleable because they are only active when supplied with a redstone signal. The speed of the clock is determined by the number of redstone repeaters used. An almost unlimited number of clock speeds is possible. These clocks were not viable until Beta 1.7.2, when self terminating redstone-piston loops were fixed.
 Controllable Clocks
Controllable clocks are a combination of a 5 Clock and a AND or a NAND gate. The output ends at the first inverter of the clock, and one of the AND inputs is the output of the 5th inverter of the clock.
 Toggleable Clock
By adding an inverter instead of a repeater at any point in an average clock and wiring a lever to the main block of this inverter, a clock that can be toggled on and off can be created. It is important to either use 3 or more repeaters (or delay if less are used), as it seems to burn out otherwise.
 Pulse Generators
A pulse generator is a device that creates a pulsed output when the input changes. A pulse generator is required to clock flip-flops without a built-in edge trigger if the clock signal will be active for more than a moment (i.e., excluding Stone Buttons).
Design A will create a short pulse when the input turns off. By inverting the input as shown in B, the output will pulse when the input turns on. The length of the pulse can be increased with extra inverters, shown in B'. This is an integral part of a T flip-flop, as it prevents the flip-flop changing more than once in a single operation. Designs A and B can be put together to represent both the increase of A and the decrease of A as separate outputs, these can then be read to show when the input changes, regardless of its state. Redstone Repeaters can be used to change the length of the pulse, by placing one or more in series in the delay circuit between the two redstone torches (referring to design A). NOTE: This design no longer works with the 1.6 update. In order for any pulse to be sent through, there must be at least one more torch of delay between the first off state and the second. Adding a repeater on the first setting will add the minimum one additional torch of delay without breaking the pulse generator.
A pulse generator which causes a short pulse of low power instead of high can be made by removing the final inverter in design B' and replacing it with a wire connection. This is the type used in designs A and B of the T and JK flip-flops (when J=1 and K=1) to briefly place these devices in the 'toggle' state, long enough for a single operation to take place.
- These circuits seem to burn themselves out in single player and (apparently) in SMP after the 1.6 update.
Type D is unique in design. Due to its nature, there is no way to correctly build it. This is because there are multiple input and output locations you can specify to fit your needs. It uses only 4 components: redstone wire, a sticky piston, a solid block (e.g. dirt or stone), and an input.
This design creates a faster tick rate then a redstone torch. Note that you will be able to use the 1st notch (Only on multiplayer please verify. Single player can only use the 2nd notch) on the diode to create and very quick pulse since there isn't a redstone component to burn out.
 Pulse Limiter
A pulse limiter limits the length of a pulse. It is useful in sequential bit activation to prevent multiple bits from being activated by the same pulse. The construction expects a default "on" input (left) and by default gives an "on" output (right).
When the limiter receives an off input, it generates a pulse with a length equal to the delay of the right repeater plus the delay of the torch minus the left repeater (make sure that this yields a positive value) or the length of the initial pulse, whichever is shorter. For example: in the picture, the pulse is calculated as .1 + .1 - .1 = .1 or one tick, assuming the activation pulse is >= 1 tick. Be aware of the North/South quirk, as this can affect the delay of the torch. When the input is turned back on, the limiter will not emit a second pulse.
Another pulse limiter design can be seen here.
The repeater in the center must be set to at least a 3 click delay, or the signal will not be sent.
Piston pulse limiter:
Another solution for having a shortpulse is using pistons instead of torches. the button will be spit up in two lines. one lines is delayed by a repeater. this repeater can be tuned in order to get the pulse length thats desired. The piston will be activated and blocking the second line.
 Monostable Circuit
A device that turns itself off a short time after it has been activated. Basically, it consists of a RSNOR-latch and delay hooked up to its reset. The trigger input activates the latch's SET input, and after a delay set by the repeaters, the RESET activates, turning the output off again. The delay (e.g. the length that the output is high) can be set to any value by adding repeaters into the chain.
As a pulse will often have a shorter duration as it passes through complex circuitry, monostable circuits are useful for relengthening the duration, as the output always lasts the same amount of time, regardless of input duration.
It can also be used to delay a signal by using its reset signal as output.
A more compact version fits into a (3x3x2). Very short pulse and repeater has to be set to one of the last two settings in order to work. Repeaters can be added to lengthen pulse.
Alternatively, a (1x7x2) vertical device can be built to fit neatly against/into a wall. As in the other cases, the length of time that the output is high can be adjusted by adding or removing repeaters. (N.B. the repeaters should be flat on the floor, in the positions shown). This design lacks the RSNOR-latch of other designs and will only be useful in constant-input circuits. For momentary circuits, this design will not lengthen an input signal like the other designs, just cut the signal early.
A compact yet simple 2-X-1 device can also be built if you're constricted to long hallways with little room for width. However, due to the design, this only works with pulsed inputs and not with constant-input circuits. Unlike the previous designs, however, it can deal with 1-tick pulses. Design A shows the basic device that lengthens the incoming pulse by 1. Design B shows how you can expand this to lengthen the pulse by 3. Design C, which lengthens incoming pulses by 6, shows how you can make the device more compact by lengthening the delay of the repeaters. Unfortunately, this particular design only works properly if the incoming pulse is at least two ticks long. Design D shows how you can skirt around this problem without terribly affecting the compact nature of the device. It lengthens pulses by 7 and works with any length pulse. Note that the number of ticks the device lengthens the pulse by is equal to the sum of the delays on the repeaters in the design, not including the first one.
Piston Monostable Circuit
With the addition of Pistons in 1.7, a Monostable Circuit can be made using a sticky piston. When the piston is activated, the block stuck to it is pushed over a redstone circuit that blocks off the output. The output then turns on and off very quickly. Repeaters can be added to increase the length of the pulse.
 Vertical transmission
Sometimes it's necessary or desirable to transmit a redstone state vertically (e.g. to have a central control or status for several circuits from a single observation point.) To transmit a state vertically, a 2x2 spiral of blocks with redstone can be used to transmit power in either direction, and the spiral is internally navigable (i.e. one can climb or descend within the tower).
If repeaters are necessary, there is a 1x1 design for transmitting a state upward, and a 1x2 design for transmitting a state downward. For this to be effective you must not finish the top torch on, only off will switch the current when needed. Internal navigability of these designs inside a 2x2 tower interior can be maintained using ladders.
This device creates energy in an irregular sequence. It is a variant of the "Rapid Pulsar" design shown in the Clock Generators section above.
You can build this device by placing a block with one redstone torch on every side. Place some redstone on top of the block, place a new block on top of each torch, and then wire it up to different circuits.
This device will stop working after the server restarts (multiplayer).
By connecting all the torches together, this device will keep going, because although the torches burn out, they are all connected, giving you a 1 tick timer.
A multiplexer (mux) is a device that selects one of two or more inputs and outputs the selected input. This multiplexer can be chained together with itself, allowing for 3 or more bit multiplexing.
Note: The inputs are (NOT A), B, and C.
-Inputs A and B are on the bottom (left=(NOT A), right=B).
-Output is on the top. C (Control) is the uppermost layer of redstone. Any connection to it will work. Dimensions: 4x3x3 Redstone: 16 (12 wire, 4 torches)
 Input Stabilizing Cell
This device will stabilize an input once received even after the input source stops. For example a stone button or pressure plate signal could be turned into a permanent power source with one push. -It consists of one repeater, and 5 wires, connecting the output of the repeater to the input. Dimensions: 2x3x1 Redstone: 8 (1 repeater [1 wire, 2 torches], 5 wire) One can also use a RSNOR latch.
Large Version: [IMG]http://i1221.photobucket.com/albums/dd478/AJFayer/Relay.jpg[/IMG]
Medium Version: [IMG]http://i1221.photobucket.com/albums/dd478/AJFayer/RelayM.jpg[/IMG]
The relay allows you to have one input be sent to two different outputs that you can switch between. It consists of two AND gates, and an RS NOR latch. The relay defaults to one output, and by setting the latch you can change to the secondary output. Unlike just an RS NOR latch, which outputs a constant signal from one output or the other, the relay allows you to send a non-constant signal, which allows you to send no signal, or to send a signal to either output. It is useful for locks, and other applications where you want a non-constant signal to go one output until a triggering event occurs. Unlike a real world relay, it doesn't require constant power to keep it sending to the secondary output. It also requires power to reset to the primary output.
An example of when you would want a relay. A lock that requires you to push multiple buttons in the correct order. A relay allows you the ability to have one button be used multiple times in the sequence by having the relay send the signal to different parts of the unlocking mechanism at different times. You could also make a multi-digit, binary combination lock that requires multiple numbers to be entered using switches. You can use four switches to enter a four digit number and a fifth switch to check the entered number. The fifth switch can flip relays to all the other switches allowing you to use the same switches to set the second number.
-A relay is built by linking two AND gates with an RS NOR latch sending its two outputs to either AND gate. Then split a single input to the other AND gate inputs. Trigger the latch to change outputs.
 Edge Detectors
These devices send a short pulse when they have a rising or falling edge as their input. For those unaware a rising edge is when a signal changes from low (0) to high (1) and falling is the opposite, high to low.
 Mechanical to Electrical Conversion
Making use of a quirk involving the update function on blocks near a water or lava source, it is possible to convert the "mechanical" energy of updating a nearby block into a redstone signal. To do this, create a water or lava rig that will shift when the desired block updates (for more info, read this thread). Then position a redstone torch or powder trail so that the water/lava will wash/burn the torch or powder. Do this in such a way that the missing redstone component will change the input signal of your circuit.
Once this setup has been rigged, the next time an update function is called in an adjacent block to the water/lava source, it will trigger your mechanism. Update functions include: an adjacent block is placed by a user, gravel or sand falls into an adjacent block, grass grows, wheat grows, an adjacent block receives power, an item resting on an adjacent block changes state (such as a door being opened).
This setup can only trigger once before needing to be manually reset.
 Electrical to Liquid Kinetic Conversion
It is possible to use the same quirk described in the Mechanical to Electrical Conversion section to make water or lava flow as desired. In order to do this, simply follow the instructions in this thread and run a redstone wire to the block adjacent to the water/lava source. Whenever the redstone wire toggles state, the water/lava source will update. If arranged properly, this can be used to redirect water or lava whenever the desired input is given via redstone circuit.
Alternatively, as of Beta 1.7, pistons provide multiple-use liquid control. The piston plate in its extended position blocks fluids from any direction, as does a block attached to the end of a sticky piston. It is far easier to use a piston (or multiple pistons) to control fluid flow using redstone circuitry, especially since they do not need to be manually reset.
 Detecting Short or Long Signals
Some times it is useful to be able to detect the length of a impulse generated by a Monostable Circuit. To do this we use an AND gate with redstone repeaters attached. These will only allow the signal to pass through if it has a signal length longer than the delay of the repeaters. This has many uses, such as special combination locks, which require you to hold down the button. It can also be used to detect Morse code, based on the principle that a dot will not make it through the gate but a dash will.
The circuit can be altered and used with a piston to create a reverse effect. Only a signal length shorter than the repeaters will pass. The piston is pulled back at the same time the repeaters are activated. As long as the input is on, the piston is back and the circuit is incomplete. If the charge reaches the end of the repeaters before the piston is pushed out again, the charge was too long and did not pass through. This can be used in sequence-dependent locks so other players cannot hold the lock open with torches.
 Related pages
- Redstone Wire
- Redstone Ore
- Redstone Torch
- Advanced Electronic Mechanisms