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Python (ASM/C/C++ for operating system)
GNU GPL v2.0
The first of its kind; a complete operating system designed to serve Minecraft.
No longer under development.
MineOS is a Linux distribution aimed at creating the smallest possible environment for a Minecraft server to run, retaining all Minecraft customizability and functionality while increasing usability. It is primarily designed at being run within a virtual environment (such as Virtualbox/VMWare) though it can be installed directly as the host OS of a computer as well. It is a fork of the Tiny Core Linux project 'microcore'.
Development has been halted on MineOS as of April 2011, but it has now been superseded by MineOS CRUX, which is still released under GNU GPL. A fork of the original MineOS distribution is currently under active development under the name MineOS+. The first release of MineOS was on December 24, 2010.
 How to Install MineOS
 How to customize MineOS
The author has created numerous tutorials to help in assisting the common processes of importing worlds, utilizing RAMDISKs and moderating the server. Additionally, MineOS can be modified like any other Linux distro; the most accurate information on adding components to MineOS can be found at the tinycorelinux website.
 Unique Characteristics of MineOS
MineOS uses rdiff-backup for space-saving, differencing backups—compared to archive backups. This should, in theory, increase the number of restore points for a server, while reducing the hard-drive footprint. It is detailed further from MineOS' advanced features page.
In addition, it uses checkworld.py by sk89q for checking and validating the format of chunk files. Along with rdiff-backup, MineOS employs the first check/repair mechanism available for worlds corrupted by unstable plugins, or unexpected shutdowns. By tracing back through existing backups (at an individual chunk-level), corrupted chunks may be replaced individually without having to resort to backpedaling to the nearest complete working backup, made potentially hours or days earlier.
Ramdisks are one of the core elements of MineOS, though non-compulsory. By using ramdisks, servers can operate at much higher throughputs, significantly speeding up gameplay for clients.
 Connectivity and security
MineOS employs SSH, and SCP (ftp-like file transfer) over SSH. This permits safe and manageable access to all files on a server, easily edited and updated through SCP browsers such as WinSCP and Filezilla.
iptables is used for firewalling protection, openings available only for secured/required ports, such as 22 (SSH), 80 (generated maps to end-user), 8080 (web admin) and 25565 (minecraft), though these may be modified/added/removed as desired with ease.